根據了解,歐洲深山鍬形蟲的幼蟲可分布在鋸木廠的附近,食用的腐爛的木材廢料。

如下圖所示,是發現的不尋常地點,歐洲深山鍬形蟲分布的地方在步道上鋪的腐植土。

英國倫敦

地點:步道建於一個小型自然保護區。 長度一三五米長, 寬1米

一個典型的倫敦公園約有4公頃,周圍樹木的邊緣,有些房屋和商業建築。

這是一個歷史幽久的地方,可能在在維多利亞時代就存在了,存有相當多的歷史遺跡,現在已成為公園。

土壤大多為腐植土,年平均降水量約六三零毫米/ 25英寸。

公園裡的木頭大多是硬的,

荷蘭Veluwe

地點:小學操場 ,總面積約325平方公尺

一個村莊,約50至100米以上的海平面,在附近的老森林遺跡。

土壤:沙質土壤排水性良好。

年平均降水量約800毫米。
冬季最低溫度: -20 攝氏度

學校操場深度為30厘米,非網狀聚合物製的,裡面充滿腐植土及新鮮的硬木芯片。

從村莊硬木樹,新鮮的 。 樹:櫸木水青岡屬植物、灰白蠟屬、櫟樹屬,也許還楊柳樹、柳屬等...

維修上是五年做一次,還好他們並不會把舊的換掉,因此保住歐洲深山鍬形蟲的棲地。

在英國倫敦木製步道捕捉到的歐洲深山鍬形蟲幼蟲及成蟲,而在這也有不少其他的昆蟲,如葉蜂幼蟲。


左右為3齡及2齡的歐洲深山鍬形蟲,中間則是犀牛角金龜↑

在荷蘭Veluwe的小學操場,因為友腐植土及木頭,因此可發現犀牛角金龜和歐洲深山鍬形蟲的幼蟲。

在2006的觀察,只有犀牛角金龜,並沒有歐洲深山鍬形蟲。

2007年9月被保羅Hendriks和瑪麗亞Fremlin發現263隻犀牛甲蟲的幼蟲和一隻三零的歐洲深山鍬形蟲幼蟲,之後仍然會發現歐洲深山鍬形蟲的存在。

然而兒童在操場上奔跑並不會對蟲體造成傷害,因為幼蟲有一定的柔軟度,適應力更強,通常而順利熬過冬天,且順利羽化。

另一個實驗性的棲地,這裡有更多的腐木。


Woodchip beds from hardwoods seem to have been very successful in these two locations, both in known stag beetle areas; they provided a good nesting habitat not only for stag beetles but for other saproxylic invertebrates as well. Why?
Possibly the main reasons were (i) they rot very quickly, and (ii) they act as a very good mulch, thus conserving the moisture, both being very important factors for a successful nesting habitat.
Because of these experiences, in very different situations but yet so similar, there is probably great future in the role of woodchips for maintaining, and possibly increasing the population, and very gradually restoring the range of stag beetles. Therefore future artificial nests could be built, in known stag beetle areas, with these findings in mind. All that needs to be done is to considerably increase the ratio woodchips-to-logs, see left photo.

這裡的上面都有提到不翻了~

Maintenance is very important, all artificial nesting habitats benefit from being topped up regularly with woodchips. It is sometimes very difficult to strike a good balance with artificial habitats; for instance, note that on the photos above there are logs lying on the surface, not buried. Logs like that could easily dry up if not topped up. In the original pyramid design the logs are buried to a good 50 cm, at least, so that down below they do stay moist. That way perhaps there is not such a strong need for mulching with woodchips.
However, if artificial nests are built outside stag beetle areas, then the results might be quite different; stag beetles are a “stay-at-home” kind of beetle.

這裡的上面都有提到不翻了~

原文網站:http://maria.fremlin.de/stagbeetles/london_veluwe.html

~未完待續~

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